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If the sheer number of references to human rights in media headlines or government statements is of any guidance, human rights concerns now appear virtually at the center of the framework of the norms, principles, and obligations that shape relations within the international community both among and within states. That political journey began, perhaps arbitrarily, on 10 December, 1948, when the United Nations General Assembly (UN-GA) embraced and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), a ringing endorsement and advocacy of the notion that regardless of race, religion or nationality, all men and women, everywhere in the world are entitled to the human rights and fundamental freedoms simply because they are human. The Historical Dictionary of Human Rights covers the history of the Human Rights movement through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has more than 1000 cross-referenced entries on terminology, conventions, treaties, intergovernmental organizations in the United Nations family or regional bodies, and the constantly expanding universe of non-governmental organizations, as well as some of the pioneers and defenders. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about the Human Rights movement.
This work offers an insightful guide to the global struggle for human rights, the problems and shortcomings of the international human rights regime, and the resources essential to human rights studies. Religious tolerance, torture, environmental rights, discrimination, and genocide. These issues are central to the contemporary debate on human rights. Should nations be free to treat their citizens exactly as they please? Or should the international community enforce minimum standards in human rights? Does the West have the right to police how other countries behave? Do other nations have the right to vet policies adopted by the U.S. government? From royal decrees in the ancient kingdoms of Persia and Babylon to the latest controversies over reform of the United Nations, establishing human rights has been a recurrent, if sometimes elusive, objective in world affairs. Internationally and domestically, controversies over human rights continue to fuel endless debate in politics, legal discourse, and the media.; Human rights concerns have helped to put Balkan war criminals behind bars, but also have seen convicted felons in the United States and the United Kingdom claim a legal right to access pornography in jail.
Is there universalism of human rights? If so, what are its scope and limits? This book is a doctrinal attempt to define universalism of human rights, as well as its scope and limits. The book presents tests of universalism on international, regional and national constitutional levels. It is maintained that universalism of human rights is both a 'concept' and a 'normative reality'. The normative character of human rights is scrutinized through the study of international and regional agreements as well as national constitutions. As a consequence, limitations of normativity are identified, usually on the international level, and take the form of exceptions, reservations, and interpretations. The book is based on the General and National Reports which were originally presented at the 18th International Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law in Washington D.C. 2010.
A 21st century approach to the study of politics nbsp; Political science needs a resource that serves as a core reference to the central ideas, concepts, and frameworks underlying the study of politics and that highlights the intersections of politics with other disciplines. The Encyclopedia of Political Science (TEPS) is designed to fill that need. It is the encyclopedia for political science in the twenty-first century. Prepared with the assistance of the American Political Science Association (APSA, this comprehensive, multi-volume work traces the evolution of political theories, concepts, research frameworks, and political practices from across the world. Cognizant of the global nature of political ideas and movements, TEPS reflects a wide range of concepts and frameworks, both Western and non-Western, national and international. An authoritative survey of the state of politics and political science, this five- volume work consists of more than 1,500 A to Z signed entries by contributors from over 30 countries, including 300 overview articles or interpretive essays.
The constant companion for all law students, and the essential reference guide for laymen, particularly business people, and all who desire a reliable guide to the law's special terminology (from abandonee to zero tolerance), including that of European union law. The Collins Dictionary of Law has been written with special reference to the needs of legal secretaries, paralegals, legal executives, and business people.
Today, the idea of human rights enjoys near-universal support; yet, there is deep disagreement about what human rights actually are - their true source of origin, how to study them, and how best to address their deficits. In this sweeping historical exploration, Christopher N. J. Roberts traces these contemporary conflicts back to their moments of inception and shows how more than a half century ago, a series of contradictions worked their way into the International Bill of Human Rights, the foundation of the modern system of human rights. By viewing human rights as representations of human relations that emerge from struggle, this book charts a new path into the subject of human rights and offers a novel theory and methodology for rigorous empirical study.
When should states protect human rights? Does the global war on terror necessitate the violation of some rights? Are food, housing, and health care valid human rights? Debating Human Rights introduces the theory and practice of international human rights by examining fourteen controversies in the field.
Exercising Human Rights investigates why human rights are not universally empowering and why this damages people attempting to exercise rights. It takes a new approach in looking at humans as the subject of human rights rather than the object and exposes the gendered and ethnocentric aspects of violence and human subjectivity in the context of human rights. Using an innovative visual methodology, Redhead shines a new critical light on human rights campaigns in practice. She examines two cases in-depth. First, she shows how Amnesty International depicts women negatively in their 2004 'Stop Violence against Women Campaign', revealing the political implications of how images deny women their agency because violence is gendered. She also analyses the Oka conflict between indigenous people and the Canadian state. She explains how the Canadian state defined the Mohawk people in such a way as to deny their human subjectivity. By looking at how the Mohawk used visual media to communicate their plight beyond state boundaries, she delves into the disjuncture between state sovereignty and human rights. This book is useful for anyone with an interest in human rights campaigns and in the study of political images.
The 20th century has been described as the bloodiest in human history, but it was also the century in which people around the world embraced ideas of democracy and human rights as never before, constructing social, political and legal institutions seeking to contain human behaviour. Todd Landman offers an optimistic, yet cautionary tale of these developments, drawing on the literature, from politics, international relations and international law. He celebrates the global turn from tyranny and violence towards democracy and rights but also warns of the precariousness of these achievements in the face of democratic setbacks and the undermining of rights commitments by many countries during the so-called 'War on Terror'.
Confronting the evils of World War II and building on the legacy of the 1776 Declaration of Independence and the 1789 French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, a group of world citizens including Eleanor Roosevelt drafted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Adopted by the United Nations in 1948, the Universal Declaration has been translated into 300 languages and has become the basis for most other international human rights texts and norms. In spite of the global success of this document, however, a philosophical disconnect exists between what major theorists have said a human right is and the foundational text of the very movement they advocate. In Inherent Human Rights: Philosophical Roots of the Universal Declaration, philosopher and political theorist Johannes Morsink offers an alternative to contemporary assumptions. A major historian of the Universal Declaration, Morsink traces the philosophical roots of the Declaration back to the Enlightenment and to a shared revulsion at the horrors of the Holocaust. He defends the Declaration's perspective that all people have human rights simply by virtue of being born into the human family and that human beings have these rights regardless of any government or court action (or inaction). Like mathematical principles, human rights are truly universal, not the products of a particular culture, economic scheme, or political system.
For more than half a century, the world community has sought to codify a series of fundamental precepts intended to prevent such abuses of human rights as torture, discrimination, starvation, and forced eviction. The United Nations, other international organizations, regional institutions, and governments have developed various procedures for protecting against and providing remedies for human rights violations. International Human Rights Law is a comprehensive introductory treatise, intended for all concerned about this critical area of international law, including students, lawyers, other advocates, teachers, and academics. The book comprises three sections: an overview of the development of human rights as a domain of international law; a collection of brief summaries of each of the rights specified in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other critical human rights instruments; and a review of the national, regional, and international procedures for implementing human rights precepts.
Differences between human beings have long been used to justify a range of degrading, exclusionary, and murderous practices that strip people of their humanity and dignity. While considerable scholarship has been devoted to such dehumanization, Matthew S. Weinert asks how we might conceive its reverse--humanization, or what it means to "make human." Weinert proposes an account of making human centered on five mechanisms: reflection, recognition, resistance, replication of dominant mores, and responsibility. Examining cases such as the UN Security Council's engagements with crises and the International Court of Justice's grappling with Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence, he illustrates the distinct and contingent ways these mechanisms have been deployed. Theoretically, the cases evince a complex, evolving relationship between state-centric and human-centric views of society, ultimately revealing the normative potentialities of both. Though the case studies concern specific human relations issues on an international level, Weinert argues in favor of starting from the shared problem of being human and of living in a world in which the humanity of countless groups has been demeaned or denied. Working outward from that point, he proposes, we obtain a more pragmatically grounded understanding of the social construction of the human being.
Offers an overview of current legal discourse as it confronts domestic violence, violence in the workplace, sexual harassment, trafficking in women, and the other common abuses of women around the world. Here are valuable studies of the stereotypes and obstacles that underlie the human rights issues affecting women in the areas of employment, education, environment, and housing.
This five-volume encyclopedia provides comprehensive coverage of many aspects of human rights, including theory, practice, law, and history. The set provides in-depth coverage of the development of the human rights movement, historical cases of abuse, the key figures, major organizations, and a range of other issues in economics, government, religion, and journalism that touch on human rights theory and practice.
Published in association with the International Studies Association (ISA), the International Studies Encyclopedia is the most comprehensive reference work of its kind for the fields of international studies and international relations. The online format brings together specially commissioned, peer-reviewed essays, written and edited by an international team of scholars and teachers and aimed at students, scholars, and practitioners. The encyclopedia is updated twice annually and enhanced by live links to archives, datasets, cases, pedagogical aids, and other relevant materials.