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Citing Your Sources: Style Guides: APA


APA Chart: Citing References in Text

This is a handy guide to APA requirements for citing items.

From Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, p. 177.

DOI Not Found

DOI (Digital Object Identifier) not found: APA recommendations

DOI and URL Flowchart

APA style requires using a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) instead of a URL and instead of a database name. This flowchart shows the many steps APA recommends to find a DOI for a journal article.



Learning More

APA Style Blog: Updates

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APA (American Psychological Association)

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 6th ed., 2010.


             APA is used in psychology and many other disciplines.

What do they look like? citations and reference

  What do APA in-text citations and reference entries look like?

APA sources are the best information on APA style:

There are other great guides, such as:

In-text citations examples

These examples represent the most common types of in-text citations, in APA format.




RefWorks will automatically change to et al Additionally, if you reorder your sentences, RefWorks will reorder the first citation and the subsequent citation.


Journal articles in Reference list: Use this pattern

Note the doi (Digital Object Identifier): APA requires use of a DOI to reference an electronic resource.

Journal articles in Reference list: Example

Note: there is a capitalization error in this Reference list entry.

Change in Display of DOI in APA Style

APA experts have decided that there are 3 correct ways to format a DOI in a reference:

1. (preferred) (with or without active link)

2. (not recommended)

3. doi:10.1037/arc0000014 (as shown in the Manual)

Decide which format you will use and use it consistently.

Books in Reference List: Use this pattern

When using RefWorks / Write-N-Cite, generate the reference list by moving your cursor to the top of a blank page, and selecting Bibliography, Create Bibliography from the toolbar.



Books in Reference List: Example

Subject Librarian

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Rebecca Knight
Associate librarian
Reference and Instructional Services Department
Morris Library, Room 117H

Subjects: U.S. Government Information,
Delaware, census, family studies, RefWorks, APA style, and genealogy.

B.A., History. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 1973.
M.S., Library Science. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 1981.



RefWorks: How Can It Help You?

RefWorks is a web-based citation management system. The system can:

  • export references from databases
  • organize references
  • store articles
  • add personal notes about the references
  • share folders
  • format citations and references lists in hundreds of citation styles
  • insert properly formatted in-text citations (or footnotes) and references lists (or bibliographies or works cited lists) when using Microsoft Word or Google Docs

From Off Campus

Most Library online resources can be accessed from off campus by current UD faculty, staff, and students. When using links on these pages, you may be prompted for your UDelNetID and password. Please report any issues you encounter while accessing Library databases, e-journals, or e-books.

RefWorks After You Graduate

RefWorks and Write-N-Cite Guides From RefWorks

The Write-N-Cite tool needs to be downloaded; unlike RefWorks which is web-based, WNC is located on your computer


The capitalization problem

Note the capitalization error in the article example in the Reference list, author Bilgin.

The word Turkish should be capitalized. APA requires that all words in the title be in lowercase, except for the first word in the title and subtitle and for proper nouns.

When RefWorks/Write-N-Cite creates a Reference list entry, it cannot distinquish a common noun from a proper noun. Be alert for changes you will need to make in the final version of your paper.