Contrast to a "regular" URL which links to a location on the web. If that object is moved, the link is broken.
If the electronic object is available for free, the permalink will open or access the object.
If the electronic object is available only by license or subscription, you will receive an error message that you are not allowed to access the item (e.g., electronic journal article) unless you or your library has access to the article.
Type this prefix:
A link formed with a doi (or other permanent identifier) is a permalink or permanent link.
Using a DOI to retrieve an item is sometimes called resolving a DOI.
Another method of creating a permalink is to either type or paste the DOI into a "resolver box" on:
Articles predating the DOI system
Scholarly publishers digitizing backfiles have expanded the assignment of DOIs to items that predate the DOI system.
The earliest article assigned a DOI is "An Accompt of the Improvement of Optick Glasses" published in 1665 in the first issue of Philosophical Transactions (Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge)
http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1098/rstl.1665.0003 Note: This is a permalink. Because the article is a library subscription (licensed resource) this link will not open the article if you are off campus.
https://library.udel.edu/static/proxy.php?http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1098/rstl.1665.0003 Note: this link is formatted as a library EZProxy link. You can login to your UD account to access the article. (Works both on and off campus.)
Off campus users will find that a permalink is a dead end when it links to a library licensed resource.
The solution is to use the EZproxy URL Link Creator to create a UD authenticated permalink. Use when you are sending URLs to off campus users, including distance learners. For more information, see the Research Guide: Permalinks.
A DOI is an alphanumeric name that identifies digital content, such as a journal article, a book, or a chapter in a book. This differs from a URL, which identifies a location on the web. A DOI is a permanent identifier; if the URL changes, the DOI will still identify and locate the item.
A DOI begins with the number 10; e.g., 10.1177/1362361315607724
The DOI identifies but it does not retrieve.
Note: DOIs are not assigned to magazine or newspaper articles.
Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2007.08/003 (the DOI is being used as a link; this is a permalink.)
APA experts have decided that there are 3 correct ways to format a DOI in a reference:
1. https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014 (preferred)
3. doi:10.1037/arc0000014 (as shown in the Manual)
RefWorks has decided to change to the new style. However, it is not doing either option correctly!
Decide which format you will use and use it consistently:
https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014 (is preferred by the APA experts)
doi:10.1037/arc0000014 (is used in the APA Manual)
Example: Using option 1; the doi preceded by https://doi.org/
In Edit mode in RefWorks:
1. If the field reads //dx.doi.org change it to //doi.org
2. If the field only contain the DOI, add //doi.org/ in front
Delete any information in the URL field
When you finish writing and create the bibliography for the final time*: add: https: in front of the double slash
* it must be the final "create bibliography" because every time the bibliography is created, anything added to the document in the gray highlighted areas (i.e., RefWorks codes) will be reset.
B.A., History. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 1973.
M.S., Library Science. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 1981.
RefWorks is a web-based citation management system. The system can: