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Science of Synthesis 4.12 - New update! (October 2018) 

New volume available: Flow Chemistry in Organic Synthesis, edited by T.F. Jamison and G. Koch

The aim of this work is to convey the practice, power, and potential of flow chemistry to a larger audience. 

Knowledge Update:

  • A major revision of the chapter on benzo[c]furans or isobenzofurans (H Kwiecień), including 1,3-dihydrobenzo[c]furan-1(3H)-ones [also called 1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1(3H)-ones or phthalides]. 
  • Updates on the synthesis of isoquinolinones (V. A. Glushkov and Yu. V. Shklyaev), thiocarbonic acids and derivatives (R. A. Aitken), S,N-acetals, and N,N-acetals (Y. Saikawa and M. Nakata), as well as the cyclic S,S-acetals 1,3-dithianes and 1,3-dithiepanes (Y. Mutoh) and the synthesis of phenols from nonaromatic precursors (C. González-Bello).

Read more about the latest update here (pdf).

Related Guides


They harnessed the power of evolution

The power of evolution is revealed through the diversity of life. The 2018 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry have taken control of evolution and used it for purposes that bring the greatest benefit to humankind. Enzymes produced through directed evolution are used to manufacture everything from biofuels to pharmaceuticals. Antibodies evolved using a method called phage display can combat autoimmune diseases and in some cases cure metastatic cancer.

Enzyme Evolution

One half of this year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded to Frances H. Arnold. In 1993, she conducted the first directed evolution of enzymes, which are proteins that catalyse chemical reactions. Since then, she has refined the methods that are now routinely used to develop new catalysts. The uses of Frances Arnold’s enzymes include more environmentally friendly manufacturing of chemical substances, such as pharmaceuticals, and the production of renewable fuels for a greener transport sector.

Phage Display

The other half of this year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry is shared by George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter. In 1985, George Smith developed an elegant method known as phage display, where a bacteriophage – a virus that infects bacteria – can be used to evolve new proteins. ... 

Antibody Evolution

The other half of this year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry is shared by George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter.  ... Gregory Winter used phage display for the directed evolution of antibodies, with the aim of producing new pharmaceuticals. The first one based on this method, adalimumab, was approved in 2002 and is used for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Since then, phage display has produced anti-bodies that can neutralise toxins, counteract autoimmune diseases and cure metastatic cancer.

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