Check out this Data Gems video from the Census Bureau which provides a beginner intro to navigating the Census Data website.
The US Census Bureau is the federal government's largest statistical agency, which serves as "the nation's leading provider of quality data about its people and economy". The Bureau is responsible for a number of surveys and reports, among which are:
You will use data.census.gov to find facts and data for a specific location.
The U.S. Census Bureau is also responsible for the Economic Census, an official measurement of American business and economy, released every five years. In October through December 2012, forms were sent out to nearly four million businesses. Respondents were asked to provide a range of operational and performance data for their companies.
The most recently released set of data is the 2012 Economic Census data, with 2017 being released now.